Monday, October 13, 2008

Saturated vapour pressure - July Dec Revision

When we place an open flask with a liquid in a closed jar, after sufficient time, volume of the liquid becomes constant. We know that liquid evaporates, but at this point in time, when volume of liquid is constant, we have to interpret that rate of transformation from liquid to vapour equals the rate of transformation from vapour to liquid.

If some vapour from outside is injected into the space above the liquid in the jar, we observe that the volume of liquid will increase. That means more vapour is getting transformed into liquid.

When a space actually contains the maximum possible amount of vapour, the vapour is said to be saturated or it is called saturated vapour. If the amount of vapour in a space is less than the maximum possible, the vapour is called unsaturated vapour.

Saturated vapour increases with temperature. At higher temperature, the space contains more vapour. This is because more liquid molecules escape from liquid surface at higher temperatures.

The pressure exerted by a saturated vapour is called saturated vapour pressure. As a higher temperature more amount of vapour is there of a liquid, saturated vapour pressure is also higher at higher temperatures for a substance. Even into an empty jar, as vapour increases more and more, and pressure increases above the SVP, vapour starts condensing and liquid forms. This is as per definition of vapour. A vapour can be transformed into a liquid at a constant temperature by increasing pressure.

In the atmosphere around us air which is mixture of nitrogen and oxygen and water vapour are mixed with each other. If a given volume air contains maximum amount of vapour possible, the air called saturated with water vapour.

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