PHYSICS (Code No. 042)

Senior Secondary stage of school education is a stage of transition from general

education to discipline-based focus on curriculum. The present updated syllabus keeps

in view the rigour and depth of disciplinary approach as well as the comprehension

level of learners. Due care has also been taken that the syllabus is not heavy and is at

the same time, comparable to the international standards. Salient features of the syllabus

include:

_ Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content.

_ Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and

formulations as per international standards.

_ Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of

concepts with their linkage for better learning.

_ Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/ content within

the discipline and other disciplines.

_ Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics

concepts.

Besides, the syllabus also attempts to

_ strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation

for further learning in the subject.

_ expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and

technological applications.

_ develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision

making and investigatory skills in the learners.

_ promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners.

_ develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate

the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

COURSE STRUCTURE

Class XI (Theory)

One Paper Three Hours Max Marks: 70

Class XI Weightage

Unit I Physical World & Measurement 03

Unit II Kinematics 10

Unit III Laws of Motion 10

Unit IV Work, Energy & Power 06

Unit V Motion of System of particles & Rigid Body 06

Unit VI Gravitation 05

Unit VII Properties of Bulk Matter 10

Unit VIII Thermodynamics 05

Unit XI Behaviour of Perfect Gas & Kinetic Theory of gases 05

Unit X Oscillations & Waves 10

Total 70

Unit I: Physical World and Measurement (periods 10)

Physics - scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental

and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of

measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit II: Kinematics (Periods 30)

Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.

Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity.

Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.

Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and

notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and

subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components. Motion in a

plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform

circular motion.

Unit III: Laws of Motion (Periods 16)

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion

(vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power (Periods 16)

Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic

energy, work-energy theorem, power.

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation

of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: elastic

and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body (Periods 18)

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass

motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.

Vector product of vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation

of angular momentum with some examples.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion,

comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.

Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of

parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit VI: Gravitation (Periods 14)

Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.

Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity

of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter (Periods 28)

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity.

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent

flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat - calorimetry; change of state - latent heat.

Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling.

Unit VIII: Thermodynamics (Periods 12)

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics.

Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and

refrigerators.

Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory (Periods 8)

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.

Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

Unit X: Oscillations and Waves (Periods 28)

Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.

Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring–restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.-kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum–derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement

relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves,

standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats,

Doppler effect.

Practicals

Note: Every student will perform 10 experiments (5 from each section) and 8 activities (4

from each section) during the academic year.

Two demonstration experiments must be performed by the teacher with participation of

students. The students will maintain a record of these demonstration experiments. Schools are advised to see the guidelines for evaluation in practicals for Class XII. Similar pattern may the followed for Class XI.

SECTION A

Experiments

1. Use of Vernier Callipers

(i) to measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body.

(ii) to measure dimensions of a given regular body of known mass and hence find its

density.

(iii) to measure internal diameter and depth of a given beaker/calorimeter and hence

find its volume.

2. Use of screw gauge

(i) to measure diameter of a given wire, (ii) to measure thickness of a given sheet

(iii) to measure volume of an irregular lamina

3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer.

4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors.

5. Using a simple pendulum, plot L-T and L-T2 graphs. Hence find the effective length of

second’s pendulum using appropriate graph.

6. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface.

7. To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravitational pull of the earth and study its relationship with the angle of inclination by plotting graph between force and sin.

Activities

1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2cm, 0.5cm.

2. To determine mass of a given body using a metre scale by principle of moments.

3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.

4. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane.

5. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection.

6. To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on inclined plane (using a

double inclined plane).

7. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time.

SECTION B

Experiments

1. To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.

2. To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting graph between load and extension.

3. To study the variation in volume with pressure for a sample of air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V, and between P and I/V.

4. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.

5. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.

6. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a

cooling curve.

7. (i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant

tension using sonometer.

(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant

frequency using sonometer.

8. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube by two resonance positions.

9. To determine specific heat of a given (i) solid (ii) liquid, by method of mixtures.

Activities

1. To observe change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax.

2. To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.

3. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations.

4. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise.

5. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.

6. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre scale loaded

(i) at its end (ii) in the middle.

Recommended Textbooks.

1. Physics Part-I, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT

2 . Physics Part-II, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT

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